SOMATOPAUSA e Hormônio do Crescimento em Adultos

O Hormônio do Crescimento Humano é um dos que tem sua produção diminuída com a idade, tal como acontece com o estradiol, progesterona, testosterona, melatonina e DHEA.

É uma das substâncias mais bem estudadas e pesquisadas em medicina, sendo que trabalhos científicos e pesquisas clínicas atestando os benefícios da sua reposição em seres humanos vem sendo publicados ininterruptamente. 
Apenas para termos uma idéia,  no MedLine, principal site de trabalhos científicos em medicina do planeta, existem mais de 62.000 trabalhos científicos sobre o GH,  publicados ao longo dos últimos 50 anos, que atestam e comprovam de forma incontestável a sua importância e benefícios múltiplos para a saúde de seres humanos.

A evidência é de que o hormônio do crescimento é essencial não apenas para o crescimento de crianças, mas também essencial para a saúde física e mental de adultos, particularmente na manutenção da integridade dos sistemas muscular, adiposo, ósseo, imunológico e cardiovascular. A deficiência do hormônio do crescimento é freqüentemente acompanhada de fadiga, ansiedade e depressão, além de um progressivo e cumulativo comprometimento da qualidade de vida. Por outro lado, a reposição com o hormônio do crescimento nestes casos tem demonstrado ser capaz de promover a parada e, por muitas vezes reversão da progressão de todos aqueles processos.

 

A falta da reposição do hormônio do crescimento nos adultos que estão envelhecendo e decaindo a sua capacidade inata de síntese endógena, ao contrário do que se imagina, pode trazer conseqüências verdadeiramente desastrosas. Aumento considerável da velocidade de deposição da placa ateromatosa, aumento das taxas de mortalidade cardiovascular, deterioração da composição corporal através da perda de massa muscular e concomitante aumento da deposição de gordura corporal total e gordura intra-abdominal, fragilidade imunológica, perda de massa óssea, depressão, distúrbios progressivos do sono e redução da síntese de proteínas são, dentre outros, alguns dos fenômenos que se sucedem ao declínio da capacidade de manutenção da síntese de níveis fisiológicos do hormônio do crescimento, e que são parcial ou totalmente reversíveis através da reposição do mesmo.

 

Em relação a um eventual aumento no risco de desenvolvimento de certos tipos de câncer com o uso do hormônio do crescimento, os estudos mais sérios e respeitados realizados em pacientes que receberam o hormônio, comparados ao grupo controle de indivíduos não-tratados, mostram uma clara redução de aproximadamente 50% na incidência de câncer e na mortalidade por câncer no grupo de indivíduos que receberam o hormônio. Na realidade, inexiste qualquer argumento consistente ou fundamentação razoável para se acreditar que repor o hormônio do crescimento possa elevar o risco de câncer.

 

De qualquer forma, uma pesquisa de rotina a cada seis a 12 meses para o câncer de próstata e mama, complementadas por ultrassom e mamografia quando necessário constitui conduta essencial, segundo este grupo de consenso. Além do mais, nós também recomendamos que o tratamento de reposição seja programado de modo a se respeitar as doses fisiológicas preconizadas, que se situam dentro do intervalo de 0.05 a 0.40 mg por dia. Em casos clínicos muito específicos e pontuais, como, por exemplo, os grandes obesos e indivíduos com grande superfície corporal, pode-se atingir uma dose de 0.60 mg por dia, que deverá ser mantida por período de tempo nunca superior a 90 dias. Doses acima destes limites são consideradas anti-fisiológicas!

 

De acordo com estes estudos científicos (vide referências bibliográficas no final do texto), cujos resultados podem ser plenamente observados na prática clínica diária, enquanto muitos desses hormônios podem ser repostos para deter alguns dos efeitos do envelhecimento, o hGH pode ir além disso, adiando o envelhecimento biológico e com o potencial de reverter fenômenos degenerativos associados ao envelhecimento.

O declínio fisiológico do Hormônio do Crescimento, com a idade, está diretamente associado aos muitos dos sintomas do envelhecimento, tais como: rugas, cabelos grisalhos, diminuição nos níveis de energia e função sexual, aumento no percentual de gordura corporal, perda de massa muscular, deterioração da composição corporal, aumento do risco cardiovascular, osteoporose, depressão, insônia, etc.

O Hormônio do Crescimento, hGH ou somatotrofina , é o mais abundante hormônio liberado pela hipófise. Sua produção ocorre em picos com maior intensidade à noite, durante a fase de movimentos rápidos dos olhos (REM) e em picos menores, durante o jejum e após exercícios físicos.

Após os 25-30 anos, quando não mais é possível ocorrer crescimento, o hGH pode ser considerado o nosso hormônio-master, por sua incrível capacidade de modular o reparo e restauro celular, atributos que nenhum outro hormônio em nosso corpo possui.
Pesquisas têm demonstrado que o Hormônio do Crescimento é capaz de reverter alguns processos degenerativos do envelhecimento, tais como: revitalizar a pele por diminuição das rugas e flacidez, tornar as unhas brilhantes e resistentes, estimular a síntese de massa muscular, modular a queima de gordura, reduzir o risco cardiovascular, estimular o ganho de massa óssea, a libido e desempenho sexual, melhora do sono, do humor e da memória.
Porém, não se pode transformar a reposição do GH em uma panaceia ou usá-lo indiscriminadamente.
O primeiro passo é avaliar clinica e laboratorialmente a necessidade do seu uso, de forma criteriosa e individualizada, através de uma consulta médica presencial.
Identificada a deficiência e inicada a reposição, a partir deste momento, o médico irá definir um programa individualizado de revisões, sempre com a finalidade de manter o programa de reposição dentro dos mais rígidos protocolos de eficácia e segurança.
Se todo este ritual for devidamente seguido e respeitado, estamos diante de uma extraordinária e poderosa ferramenta, capaz de promover uma considerável melhora na qualidade, velocidade e intensidade dos processos do envelhecimento
REFERÊNCIAS

    GH accelerates repair GH stimulates the immune system

 GH/IGF-1 stimulates fibroblast proliferation and differentiation poor GH gene polymorphisms may increase the risk of age-related diseases GHRH may stimulate telomerase    

 

15. Takada Y, Bando H, Miyamoto Y, Kosaka M, Sano T. Effect of growth hormone on immune

function in normal and hypophysectomised rats. Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi. 1991 Oct

20;67(10):1162-77

16. Manfredi R, Tumietto F, Azzaroli L, Zucchini A, Chiodo F, Manfredi G. Growth hormone (GH) and

the immune system: impaired phagocytic function in children with idiopathic GH deficiency is

corrected by treatment with biosynthetic GH. J Pediatr Endocrinol. 1994 Jul-Sep;7(3):245-51

17. Jardieu P, Clark R, Mortensen D, Dorshkind K. In vivo administration of insulin-like growth factor-l

stimulates primary B lymphopoiesis and enhances lymphocyte recovery after bone marrow

transplantation. J Immunol. 1994 May 1;152(9):4320-7

18. Vara-Thorbeck R, Guerrero JA, Roseli J, Ruiz-Requena E, Capitan JM. Exogenous growth

hormone: effects on the catabolic response to surgically produced acute stress and on

postoperative immune function. Worid J Surg. 1993 Jul-Aug;17(4):530-7

19. Edwards CK 3rd, Ghiasuddin SM, Yunger LM, Lorence RM, Arkins S, Dantzer R, Kelley KW. In

vivo administration of recombinant growth hormone or gamma interferon activities macrophages:

enhanced resistance to experimental Salmonella typhimurium infection is correlated with

generation of reactive oxygen intermediates. Infect Immun. 1992 Jun;60(6):2514-21

20. Huang KF, Chung DH, Herndon DN. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) reduces gut atrophy and

bacterial translocation after severe burn injury. Arch Surg. 1993 Jan;128(1):47-53

21. Peake GT, Mackinnon LT, Sibbitt WL Jr, Kraner JC. Exogenous growth hormone treatment alters

body composition and increases naturalkiller cell activity in women with impaired endogenous

growth hormone secretion. Metabolism. 1987 Dec;36(12):1115-7

22. Crist DM, Kraner JC. Supplemental growth hormone increases the tumor cytotoxic activity of

natural killer cells in healthy adutts with normal growth hormone secretion. Metabolism. 1990

Dec;39(12):1320-4

 

Limits to healthy cell proliferation:

23. Clemmons DR, Van Wyk JJ. Somatomedin-C and platelet-derived growth factor stimulate human

fibroblast replication. J Cell Physiol. 1981 Mar;106(3):361-7

24. van Osch GJ, van der Veen SW, Verwoerd-Verhoef HL. In vitro redifferentiation of cultureexpanded

rabbit and human auricular chondrocytes for cartilage reconstruction. Plast Reconstr

Surg. 2001 Feb;107(2):433-40

 

Poor gene polymorphism:

25. Dennison EM, Syddall HE, Rodriguez S, Voropanov A, Day IN, Cooper C; Southampton Genetic

Epidemiology Research Group.Polymorphism in the growth hormone gene, weight in infancy, and

adult bone mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Oct;89(10):4898-903

 

Progressive telomere shortening:

26. Kiaris H, Schally AV. Decrease in telomerase activity in U-87MG human glioblastomas after

treatment with an antagonist of growth hormone-releasing hormone. Proc NatI Acad Sei USA. 1999

Jan 5;96(1):226-31

 

GH and psychic well-being

Lower quallty of life and fatigue: the association with lower GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

27. Gilchrist FJ, Murray RD, Shalet SM. The effect of long-term untreated growth hormone deficiency

(GHD) and 9 years of GH replacement on the quallty of life (QoL) of GH-deficient adults. Clin

Endocrinol (OxÇ. 2002 Sep;57(3):363-70

28. Abs R, Bengtsson BA, Hernberg-Stahl E, Monson JP, Tauber JP, Wilton P, Wuster C. GH

replacement in 1034 growth hormone deficient hypopituitary adults: demographic and clinical

characteristics, dosing and safety. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1999 Jun;50(6):703-13

29. Murray RD, Skiilicorn CJ, Howell SJ, Lissett CA, Rahim A, Shalet SM. Dose titration and patient

selection increases the efficacy of GH replacement in severely GH deficient adults. Clin Endocrinol

(0x1). 1999Jun;50(6):749-57

 

Lower quallty of life and fatigue: the effect of GH and/or IGF-1 treatment

 

30. Murray RD, Darzy KH, Gleeson HK, Shalet SM. GH-deficient survivors of childhood cancer: GH

replacement during adurt life. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jan;87(1):129-35

  

 

31. Murray RD, Skiilicorn CJ, Howell SJ, Lissett CA, Rahim A, Smethurst LE, Shalet SM. Influences on

quallty of life in GH deficient adults and their effect on response to treatment. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf)

1999Nov;51(5):565-73

32. Ahmad AM, Hopkins MT, Thomas J, Ibrahim H, Fraser WD, Vora JP. Body composition and quallty

of life in adults with growth hormone deficiency; effects of low-dose growth hormone replacement

Clin Endocrinol (0x1). 2001 Jun;54(6):709-17

33. Davies JS, Obuobie K, Smith J, Rees DA, Furlong A, Davies N, Evans LM, Scanion MF. A

therapeutic trial of growth hormone in hypopituitary adults and its influence upon continued

prescription by general practitioners. Clin Endocrinol (0x1) 2000 Mar;52(3):295-303

34. McGauley GA Quallty of life assessment before and after growth hormone treatment in adults with

growth hormone deficiency. Acta Paediatr Scand SuppI. 1989;356:70-2

35. Cuneo RC, Judd S, Wallace JD, Perry-Keene D, Burger H, Lim-Tio S, Strauss B, Stockigt J

Topliss D, Alford F, Hew L, Bode H, Conway A, Handeisman D, Dunn S, Boyages S, Cheung NW,

Hurley D. The Australlan Multicenter Trial of Growth Hormone (GH) Treatment in GH-Deficient

Adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Jan;83(1):107-16

36. Li Voon Chong JS, Benbow S, Foy P, Wallymahmed ME, Wile D, MacFariane IA. Elderly people

with hypothalamic-pituitary disease and growth hormone deficiency: lipid profiles, body composition

and quallty ofiife compared with control subjects. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2000 Nov;53(5):551-9

37. Moorkens G, Berwaerts J, Wynants H, Abs R. Characterization of pituitary function with emphasis

on GH secretion in the cnronic fatigue syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2000 Jul;53(1):99-106

38. Wallymahmed ME, Baker GA, Humphris G, Dewey M, MacFariane IA. The development, reliability

and valldity of a disease specific quallty of life model for adults with growth hormone deficiency

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1996 Apr;44(4):403-11

39. Lagrou K, Xhrouet-Heinrichs D, Massa G, Vandeweghe M, Bourguignon JP, De Schepper J, de

Zegher F, Ernould C, Heinrichs C, Malvaux P, Craen M. Quallty ofiife and retrospectivo perception

of the effect of growth hormone treatment in adult patients with childhood growth hormone

deficiency. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2001 ;14 SuppI 5:1249-60

40. Stabler B. Impact of growth hormone (GH) therapy on quallty of life along the lifespan of GHtreated

patients. Horm Res. 2001 ;56 Supp11:55-8

41. Wiren L, Johannsson G, Bengtsson BA. A prospective investigation of quallty of life and

psychological well-being after the discontinuation of GH treatment in adolescent patients who had

GH deficiency during childhood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Aug;86(8):3494-8

42. Bjork S, Jonsson B, Westphal O, Levin JE. Quallty of life of adults with growth hormone deficiency:

a controlled study. Acta Paediatr Scand SuppI 1989;356:55-9; discussion 60, 73-4

43. Bengtsson BA, Abs R, Bennmarker H, Monson JP, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Hernberg-Stahl E,

Westberg B, Wilton P, Wuster C. The effects of treatment and the individual responsiveness to

growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in 665 GH-deficient adults. KIMS Study Group and the

KIMS International Board. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999 Nov;84(11):3929-35

44. Laron Z. Consequences of not treating children with Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone

insensitivity). J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2001 ;14 SuppI 5:1243-8; discussion 1261-2

45. Page RC, Hammersiey MS, Burke CW, Wass JA. An account of the quallty of life of patients after

treatment for non-functioning pituitary tumours. Clin Endocrinol (0x1). 1997Apr;46(4):401-6

 

Lower quallty of life and fatigue: the improvement with GH treatment

 

 

46. Wallymahmed ME, Foy P, Shaw D, Huteheon R, Edwards RH, MacFarlane IA. Quallty of life, body

composition and muscle strength in adult growth hormone deficiency: the influence of growth

hormone replacementtherapy for up to 3 years. CHn Endocrinol (0x1). 1997 Oct;47(4):439-46

47. Kozakowski J, Adamkiewicz M, Krassowski J, Zgliczynski S. The beneficial effects of growth

hormone replacementtherapy on elderly men. Pol Merkuriusz Lek. 1999 Mar;6(33):131-4

48. Waters D, Danska J, Hardy K, Koster F, Qualls C, Nickell D, Nightingale S, Gesundheit N, Watson

D, Schade D. Recombinant human growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, and combination

therapy in AlDS-associated wasting. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann

Intern Med. 1996 Dec 1:125(11):865-72

49. Bengtsson BA, Abs R, Bennmarker H, Monson JP, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Hernberg-Stahl E,

Westberg B, Wilton P, Wuster C. The effects of treatmerrt and the individual responsiveness to

growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in 665 GH-deficient adults. KIMS Study Group and

the KIMS International Board. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Nov;84(11):3929-35

    

 

50. Feldt-Rasmussen U, Abs R, Bengtsson BA, Bennmarker H, Bramnert M, Hernberg-Stahl E,

Monson JP, Westberg B, Wilton P, Wuster C; KIMS International Study Board on behalf of KIMS

Study Group.Growth hormone deficiency and replacement in hypopituitary patiente previousiy

treated for acromegaly or Cushing's disease. EurJ Endocrinol. 2002 Jan;146(1):67-74

51. Hernberg-Stahl E, Luger A, Abs R, Bengtsson BA, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Wilton P, Westberg B,

Monson JP; KIMS International Board.; KIMS Study Group. Pharmacia International Metabolic

Database. Heatthcare consumption decreases in parallel with improvements in quallty of life

during

GH replacement in hypopituitary adutts wrth GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001

Nov;86(11):5277-81

52. Wiren L, Bengtsson BA, Johannsson G. Beneficial effects ofiong-term GH replacementtherapy on

quallty ofiife in adults with GH deficiency. Clin Endocrinol (0x1). 1998 May;48(5):613-20

53. Fazio S, Sabatini D, Capaldo B, Vigorito C, Giordano A, Guida R, Pardo F, Biondi B, Sacca LA

preliminary study of growth hormone in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy. N EngI J Med.

1996 Mar28;334(13):809-14

54. Burman P, Deijen JB. Quallty of life and cognitive function in patients with pituitary insufficiency.

Psychother Psychosom. 1998;67(3):154-67

55. Carroll PV, Little wood R, Weissberger AJ, Bogalho P, McGauley G, Sonksen PH, Russell-Jones

DL. The effects of two doses of replacement growth hormone on the biochemical, body

composition and psychological profiles of growth hormone-deficient adults. Eur J Endocrinol.

1997

Aug;137(2):146-53

56. Burman P, Broman JE, Hetta J, Wiklund l, Erfurth EM, Hagg E, Karisson FA. Quallty of life in

adults with growth hormone (GH) deficiency: response to treatment with recombinant human GH

in

a placebo-controlled 21-month trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Dec;80(12):3585-90

 

Depression: the association with lower GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

57. Jarrett DB, Miewaid JM, Kupfér DJ. Recurrent depression is associated with a persistent reduction

in sleep-related growth hormone secretion. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990 Feb;47(2):113-8

58. Jarrett DB, Kupfér DJ, Miewaid JM, Grochocinski VJ, Franz B. Sleep-related growth hormone

secretion is persistentiy suppressed in women with recurrent depression: a preliminary longitudinal

analysis. J Psychiatr Res. 1994 May-Jun;28(3):211 -23)

59. Rubin RT, Poland RE, Lesser IM. Neuroendocrine aspects of primary endogenous depression. X:

Serum growth hormone measures in patients and matched control subjects. Biol Psychiatry. 1990

h May 15:27(10):1065-82

60. Schilkrut R, Chandra O, Osswaid M, Ruther E, Baafusser B, Matussek. Growth hormone release

during sleep and with thermal stimulatíon in depressed patients. Neuropsychobiology.

1975;1(2):70-9

61. Barry S, Dinan TG. Neuroendocrine challenge tests in depression: a study of growth hormone,

TRH and cortisol release. J Affect Disord. 1990 Apr;18(4):229-34

62. Dinan TG, Barry S. Responses of growth hormone to desipramine in endogenous and non

endogenous depression. Br J Psychiatry. 1990 May;156:680-4

63. Voderholzer U, Laakmann G, Wittmann R, Daffner-Bujia C, Hinz A, Haag C, Baghai T. Profiles of

spontaneous 24-hour and stimulated growth hormone secretion in male patients with endogenon

depression. Psychiatry Res. 1993 Jun;47(3):215-27

64. Harro J, Rimm H, Marro M, Grauberg M, Karelson K, Vim AM. Association of depressiveness with

blunted growth hormone response to maximal physical exercise in young healthy men

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1999 Jul;24(5):505-17

65. Greden JF. Biological markers of melancholia and reclassification of depressive disorder

Encephale. 1982;8(2):193-202

66. McMilIan CV, Bradiey C, Gibney J, Healy ML, Russell-Jones DL, Sonksen PH. Psychological

effects ofwithdrawal of growth hormone therapy from adults with growth hormone deficiency. Clin

Endocrinol. (Oxf). 2003 Oct;59(4):467-75

 

Depression: the improvement with GH treatment

 

67. Mahajan T, Crown A, Checkley S, Farmer A, Lightman S. Atypical depression in growth hormone

deficient adults, and the beneficial effects of growth hormone treatment on depression and quallly

ofiife. Eur J Endocrinol. 2004 Sep;151(3):325-32

(GH increase:.              

 

68. Johansson JO, Larson G, Andereson M, Elmgren A, Hynsjo L, Undahl A, Lundberg PA, Isaksson

OG, Lindstedt S, Bengtsson BA. Treatment of growth hormone-deficient adults with recombinant

human growth hormone increases the concentration of growth hormone in the cerebrospinal fluid

and affects neurotransmitters. Neuroendocrinology. 1995 Jan;61(1):57-66

endorphins, reduces dopamine)

 

Anxiety: the association with lower GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

69. Tancer ME, Stein MB, Uhde TW. Growth hormone response to intravenous clonidine in social

phobia: comparison to patients with panic disorder and healthy volunteers. Biol Psychiatry. 1993

Nov1;34(9):591-5

70. Cameron OG, Abelson JL, Young EA. Anxious and depressive disorders and their comorbidity

effect on central nervous system noradrenergic function. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Dec 1;56(11):875

83

71. Stabler B. Impact of growth hormone (GH) therapy on quallty of life along the lifespan of GH

treated patients. Horm Res. 2001 ;56 Suppl 1:55-8

72. Abelson JL, Glitz D, Cameron OG, Lee MA, Bronzo M, Curtis GC. Blunted growth hormone

response to clonidine in patients with generallzed anxiety disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1991

Feb;48(2):157-62

 

Anxiety: the improvement with GH treatment

 

73. Arwert LI, Deijen JB, Muller M, Drent ML. Long-term growth hormone treatment preserves GH

induced memory and mood improvements: a 10-year follow-up study in GH-deficient adult men.

Horm Behav. 2005 Mar;47(3):343-9

74. Lasaite L, Bunevicius R, Lasiene D, Lasas L. Psychological functioning after growth hormone

therapy in adult growth hormone deficient patients: endocrine and body composition correlates.

Medicina (Kaunas). 2004;40(8):740-4

 

Memory loss and Alzheimer's disease: the association with lower GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

75. Deijen JB, de Bóer H, Blok GJ, van der Veen EA. Cognitive impairments and mood disturbances in

growth hormone deficient men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1996 Apr;21(3):313-22

76. Rollero A, Murialdo G, Fonzi S, Garrone S, Gianelli MV, Gazzerro E, Barreca A, Polleri A.

Relaionship between cognitive function, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor l plasma

levels in aged subjects. Neuropsychobiology. 1998;38(2):73-9

77. van Dam PS, de Winter CF, de Vries R, van der Grond J, Drent ML, Lijffijt M, Kenemans JL,

Aleman A, de Haan EH, Koppeschaar HP. Childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency, cognitive

function and brain N-acetylaspartate. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2005 May;30(4):357-63

78. Watanabe T, Koba S, Kawamura M, Itokawa M, Idei T, Nakagawa Y, Iguchi T, Katagiri T. Small

dense low-density lipoprotein and carotid atherosclerosis in relation to vascular dementia.

Metabolism. 2004 Apr;53(4):476-82

 

Memory loss and Alzheimer's disease: the improvement with GH treatment

 

79. Deijen JB, de Bóer H, van derVeen EA. Cognitive changes during growth hormone replacement in

aduft men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1998 Jan;23(1):45-55

80. Koppeschaar HP. Growth hormone, insulin-llke growth factor l and cognitivo function in adults.

Growth Horm IGF Res. 2000 Apr;10 Suppl B:S69-73

 

Sleep disorders: the association with lower GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

81. Astrom C, Lindholm J. Growth hormone-deficient young adults have decreased deep sleep.

Neuroendocrinology. 1990 Jan;51(1):82-4

 

Sleep disorders: the improvement with GH treatment

 

82. Astrom C, Pedersen SA, Lindholm J. The influence of growth hormone on sleep in adults with

growth hormone deficiency. Clin Endocrinol (0x1). 1990 Oct;33(4):495-500

 

Loss of sexual drive, sensitivity and/or potency: the association with lower GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

83. Becker AJ, Uckert S, Stief CG, Scheller F, Knapp WH, Hartmann U, Brabant G, Jonas U. Serum

levels of human growth hormone during different penile conditions in the cavernous and systemic

blood of healthy men and patients with erectile dysfunction. Urology. 2002 Apr;59(4):609-14

84. Huang X, U S, Hu L. Growth hormone deficiency and age-related erectile dysfunction. Zhonghua

Nan Ke Xue. 2004 Nov;10(11):867

         

 

Loss of sexual potency: the improvement with GH treatment

 

85. Becker AJ, Uckert S, Stief CG, Truss MC, Machtens S, Scheller F, Knapp WH, Hartmann U, Jonas

U. Possible role of human growth hormone in penile erection. J Urol. 2000 Dec;164(6):2138-42

86. Zhang XS, Wang YX, Han YF, U Z, Xiang ZQ, Leng J, Huang XY. Effects of growth hormone

supplementation on erectile function and expression ofnNOS in aging rats. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue.

2005May;11(5):339-42

87. Jung GW, Spencer EM, Lue TF. Growth hormone enhances regeneration of nitric oxide synthasecontaining

penile nerves after cavernous nerve neurotomy in rats. J Urol. 1998 Nov;160(5):1899-

904

 

GH and phvsical appearance/bodv composition

Sarcopenia: the association with lower GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

88. Sartorio A, Narici MV. Growth hormone (GH) treatment in GH-deficient adults: effects on muscle

size.strength and neural activation. Clin Physiol 1994 Sep;14(5):527-37

89. De Bóer H, Blok GJ, Voerman HJ, De Vries PM, van der Veen EA. Body composition in adult

growth hormone-deficient men, assessed by anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis. J Clin

Endocrinol Metab 1992 Sep;75(3):833-7

90. Cuneo RC, Salomon F, Wiles CM, Hesp R, Sonksen PH. Growth hormone treatment in growth

hormone-deficient adults. l. Effects on muscle mass and strength. J Appl Physiol 1991

Feb;70(2):688-94

 

Sarcopenia: the improvement with GH treatment

 

91. Vahl N, Juul A, Jorgensen JO, Orskov H, Skakkebaek NE, Christiansen JS. Continuation of growth

hormone (GH) replacement in GH-deficient patients during transition from childhood to adulthood:

a two-year placebo-controlled study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 May;85(5):1874-81

92. Butterfield GE, Marcus R, Holioway L, Butterfield G. Clinical use of growth hormone in elderly

people. J Reprod Fértil SuppI. 1993; 46:115-8

93. Butterfield GE, Thompson J, Rennie MJ, Marcus R, Hintz RL, Hoffman AR. Effect of rhGH and

rhlGF-1 treatment on protein utilization in elderly women. Am J Physiol. 1997 Jan; 272 (1 M 1): E

94-9

94. Sartorio A, Narici MV. Growth hormone (GH) treatment in GH-deficient adults: effects on muscle

size.strength and neural actívation. Clin Physiol. 1994 Sep;14(5):527-37

95. Janssen YJ, Doornbos J, Roelfsema F. Changes in muscle volume, strength, and bioenergetics

during recombinant human ,growth hormone (GH) therapy in adults with GH deficiency. J Clin

Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Jan;84(1):279-84

96. Jorgensen JO, Pedersen SA, Thuesen L, Jorgensen J, Ingemann-Hansen T, Skakkebaek NE,

Christiansen JS. Beneficial effects of growth hormone treatment in GH-deficient adults. Lancet

1989Jun3;1(8649):1221-5

97. ter Maaten JC, de Bóer H, Kamp O, Stuurman L, van der Veen EA. Long-term effects of growth

hormone (GH) replacement in men with childhood-onset GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.

1999Jul;84(7):2373-80

98. Whitehead HM, Boreham C, Mcllrath EM, Sheridan B, Kennedy L, Atkinson AB, Hadden DR.

Growth hormone treatment of adults with growth hormone deficiency: results of a 13-month

placebo controlled cross-over study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1992 Jan;36(1):45-52

99. Nam SY, Kim KR, Chá BS, Song YD, Um SK, Lee HC, Huh KB. Low-dose growth hormone

treatment combined with diet restriction decreases insulin resistance by reducing visceral fat and

increasing muscle mass in obese type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001

Aug;25(8):1101-7

 

Lean body mass: the association with lower GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

100. De Bóer H, Blok GJ, Voerman HJ, De Vries PM, van der Veen EA. Body composition in adult

growth hormone-deficient men, assessed by anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis. J Clin

Endocrinol Metab. 1992 Sep;75(3):833-7

 

Lean body mass: the improvement with GH treatment

 

101. Bengtsson BA, Éden S, Lonn L, Kvist H, Stokiand A, Lindstedt G, Bosaeus l, Tolli J, Sjostrom L,

Isaksson OG. Treatment of adults with growth hormone (GH) deficiency with recombinant human

GH. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Feb;76(2):309-17

  . Hertoghe T. Growth hormone therapy in aging adults. Anti-aging Med Ther. 1997;1:10-28    

 

102. Lombardi G, Luger A, Marek J, Russell-Jones D, Sonksen P, Attanasio AF. Short-term safety and

efficacy of human GH replacement therapy in 595 adults with GH deficiency: a comparison of two

dosage algorithms. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;87(5):1974-9

103. Vahl N, Juul A, Jorgensen JO, Orskov H, Skakkebaek NE, Christiansen JS. Continuation of growth

hormone (GH) replacement in GH-deficient patients during transition from childhood to adulthood:

a two-year placebo-controlled study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 May;85(5):1874-81

104. Rudman D, Feller AG, Nagraj HS, Gergans GA, Laiitha PY, Goldberg AF, Schienker RA, Cohn L,

Rudman IW, Mattson DE. Effects of human growth hormone in men over 60 years old. N EngI J

Med.1990Jul5;323(1):1-6

105. Davies JS, Obuobie K, Smith J, Rees DA, Furlong A, Davies N, Evans LM, Scanion MF. A

therapeutic trial of growth hormone in hypopituitary adults and its influence upon continued

prescription by general practitioners. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2000 Mar;52(3):295-303

106. Olsovska V, Siprova H, Beranek M, Soska V. The influence of long-term growth hormone

replacement therapy on body composition, bone tissue and some metabolic parameters in adults

with growth hormone deficiency. Vnitr Lek. 2005 Dec;51(12):1356-64

 

Physical appearance, body morphology improvement with GH treatment

 

107

108. Zivicnjak M, Franke D, Ehrich JH, Filler G.Does growth hormone therapy harmonize distorted

morphology and body composition in chronic renal fàilure? Pediatr Nephrol. 2000 Dec;15(3-

4):229-

109. Eiholzer U, Schiumpf M, Nordmann Y, 1'Allemand D. Early manifestations of Prader-Willi

syndrome:

influence of growth hormone. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2001 ;14 Suppl 6:1441-4

 

GH and age-related diseases

Hypercholesterolemia: the association with lower GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

110. Abdu TA, Neary R, Elhadd TA, Akber M, Clayton RN. Coronary risk in growth hormone deficient

hypopituitary adults: increased predicted risk is due largely to lipid profile abnormallties. Clin

Endocrinol (Oxf) 2001 Aug;55(2):209-16

111. Landin-Wilhelmsen K, Wilhelmsen L, Lappas G, Rosen T, Lindstedt G, Lundberg PA, Bengtsson

BA. Serum insulin-like growth factor l in a random population sample of men and women: relation

to age, sex, smoking habits, coffee consumption and physical activity, blood pressure and

concentrations of plasma lipids, fibrinogen, parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin. Clin Endocrinol

(Oxf). 1994 Sep;41(3):351-7

112. Sanmarti A, Lucas A, Hawkins F, Webb SM, Ulied A. Observational study in adult hypopituitary

patients with untreated growth hormone deficiency (ODA study). Socio-economic impact and

health

status. Collaborative ODA (Observational GH Deficiency in Adults) Group. Eur J Endocrinol.

1999

Nov;141(5):481-9

113. Colao A, di Somma C, Pivonello R, Cuocolo A, Spinelli L, Bonaduce D, Salvatore M, Lombardi

G.

The cardiovascular risk of adult GH deficiency (GHD) improved after GH replacement and

worsened in untreated GHD: a 12-month prospective study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002

Mar;87(3):1088-93

 

Hypercholesterolemia: the improvement with GH treatment

 

114. Abrahamsen B, Nielsen TL, Hangaard J, Gregersen G, Vahl N, Korsholm L, Hansen TB, Andersen

M, Hagen C. Dose-, IGF-I- and sex-dependent changes in lipid profile and body composition

during

GH replacement therapy in adult onsetGH deficiency. Eur J Endocrinol. 2004 May;150(5):671-9

115. Elgzyri T, Castenfors J, Hagg E, Backman C, Thoren M, Bramnert M. The effects of GH

replacement therapy on cardiac morphology and function, exercise capacity and serum lipids in

elderly patients with GH deficiency. Clin Endocrinol (0x1). 2004 Jul;61(1):113-22

("a decrease oftotal and          

 

116. Jallad RS, Liberman B, Vianna CB, Vieira ML, Ramires JA, Knoepfelmacher M.Effects of growth

hormone replacement therapy on metabolic and cardiac parameters, in adult patients with

childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2003 Apr-Jun;13(2-3):81-8

117. Olsovska V, Siprova H, Beranek M, Soska V. The influence of long-term growth hormone

replacement therapy on body composition, bone tissue and some metabolic parameters in adults

with growth hormone deficiency. Vnitr Lek. 2005 Dec;51(12):1356-64

LDL

cholesterol occurred aiready after a half of the year of the treatment (p < 0.05), changes were

significant aiso in further four years. HDL cholesterol levels have had a progressivo tendency, but

they were nof statistically significant")

 

Homocysteinemia: the improvement with GH treatment

 

118. Sesmilo G, Biller BM, LIevadot J, Hayden D, Hanson G, Rifai N, Klibanski A. Effects of growth

hormone (GH) administration on homocyst(e)ine levels in men with GH deficiency: a randomized

controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Apr;86(4): 1518-24

 

Atherosclerosis: the association with lower GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

119. Capaldo B, Patti L, Oliviero U, Longobardi S, Pardo F, Vitale F, Fazio S, Di Relia F, Biondi H

Lombardi G, Sacca L. Increased arterial intima-media thickness in childhood-onset growth

hormone deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 May;82(5):1378-81

120. Markussis V, Beshyah SA, Fisher C, Sharp P, Nicolaides AN, Johnston DG. Detection of

prematuro atherosclerosis by high-resolution ultrasonography in symptom-free hypopituitary adults

Lancet. 1992;340:1188-1192.

121. Pfeifer M, Verhovec R, Zizek B, Prezelj J, Poredos P, Clayton RN. Growth hormone (GH)

treatment

reverses early atherosclerotic changes in GH-deficient adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999

Feb;84(2):453-7

 

Atherosclerosis: the improvement wrth GH treatment

 

122. Pfeifer M, Verhovec R, Zizek B, Prezelj J, Poredos P, Clayton RN. Growth hormone (GH)

treatment

reverses early atherosclerotic changes in GH-deficient adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999

Feb;84(2):453-7

123. Irving RJ, Carson MN, Webb DJ, Walker BR. Peripheral vascular structure and function in men

with

contrasting GH levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jul;87(7):3309-14

124. Borson-Chazot F, Serusclat A, Kalfallah Y, Ducottet X, Sassolas G, Bernard S, Labrousse F.

Pastene J, Sassolas A, Roux Y, Berthezene F. Decrease in carotid intima-media thickness after

one year growth hormone (GH) treatment in adults with GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab

1999 Apr;84(4):1329-33.

125. Soares DV, Spina LD, de Lima Oliveira Brasil RR, da Silva EM, Lobo PM, Salles E, Coeli CM,

Conceição FL, Vaisman M. Carotid artery intima-media thickness and lipid profile in adults with

growth hormone deficiency after long-term growth hormone replacement. Metabolism. 2005

Mar;54(3):321

 

Arterial hypertension: the association with lower GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

126. Landin-Wilhelmsen K, Wilhelmsen L, Lappas G, Rosen T, Lundstedt G, Lundberg PA,

Bengtssopn

BA. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 in a random population sample of men and women:

relation

to age, sex, smoking habits, coffee consumption and physical activity, blood pressure and

concentrations of plasma lipids, fibrinogen, parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin. Clin Endocrinol

(Oxf).1994Sep;41(3):351-7

 

Arterial hypertension: the improvement with GH treatment

 

127. Caidahl K, Éden S, Bengtsson BA. Cardiovascular and renal effects of growth hormone. Clin

Endocrinol (Oxf). 1994 Mar;40(3):393-400

         

 

Coronary heart disease: the association with lower GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

128. Conti E, Andreotti F, Sciahbasi A, Riccardi P, Marra G, Menini E, Ghirlanda G, Maseri A.

Markedly

reduced insulin-like growth factor-1 in the acute phase of myocardial infarction. J Am Coll

Cardiol.

2001 Jul;38(1):26-32

 

Coronary heart disease: the improvement with GH treatment

 

129. Castagnino HE, Lago N, Centrella JM, Cailigaris SD, Farina S, Sarchi Ml, Cardinall DP.

Cytoprotection by melatonin and growth hormone in early rat myocardial infarction as revealed by

Feulgen DNAstaining. Neuroendocrinol Lett; 2002 Oct-Dec;23(5/6):391-395

 

Stroke and other cerebrovascular disorders: the association with GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

130. Rudman D, Nagraj HS, Mattson DE, Jackson DL, Rudman IW, Boswell J, Pucci DC.

Hyposomatomedinemia in the men of a Veterans Administration Nursing Home:prevalence and

correlates.Gerontology. 1987;33(5):307-14

 

Obesity: the association with lower GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

131. Beshyah SA, Freemantie C, Thomas E, Rutherfórd O, Page B, Murphy M, Johnston DG.

Abnormal

body composition and reduced bone mass in growth hormone deflclent hypopituitary adults. Clin

Endocrinol (Oxf) 1995 Feb;42(2):179-89

132. Attanasio AF, Bates PC, Ho KK, Webb SM, Ross RJ, Strasburger CJ, Bouillon R, Crowe B,

Selander K, Valle D, Lamberts SW; Hypoptiuitary Control and Complications Study International

Advisoiy Board. Human growth hormone replacement in adult hypopituitary patients: long-term

effects on body composition and lipid status-3-year resutts from the HypoCCS Database. J Clin

Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Apr;87(4): 1600-6

133. Stouthart PJ, de Ridder CM, Rekers-Mombarg LT, van der Waal HA. Changes in body

composition

during 12 months after discontinuation of growth hormone therapy in young adutts with growth

hormone deficiency from childhood. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Apr;12 Suppl 1:335-8

134. Biller BM, Sesmilo G, Baum HB, Hayden D, Schoenfeld D, Klibanski A. Withdrawal of long-term

physiological growth hormone (GH) administration: differential effects on bone density and body

composition in men withadult-onset GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000

Mar;85(3):970-6

135. Kohno H, Ueyama N, Honda S. Unfavourable impact of growth hormone (GH) discontinuation on

body composition and cholesterol profiles after the completion of height growth in GH-deficient

young adults. Diabetes Obes Metab. 1999 Sep;1(5):293-6

136. Kuromaru R, Kohno H, Ueyama N, Hassan HM, Honda S, Hara T. Long-term prospective study of

body composition and lipid profiles during and after growth hormone (GH) treatment in children

with GH deficiency: gender-specific metabolic effects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998

Nov;83(11):3890-6

137. Vahl N, Juul A, Jorgensen JO, Orekov H, Skakkebaek NE, Christiansen JS. Continuation of

growth

hormone (GH) replacement in GH-deficient patients during transition from childhood to

adutthood:

a two-year placebo-controlled study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 May;85(5):1874-81

138. Norrelund H, Vahl N, Juul A, Moller N, Alberti KG, Skakkebaek NE, Christiansen JS, Jorgensen

JO. Continuation of growth hormone (GH) therapy in GH-deficient patients during transition from

childhood to adutthood: impact on insulin sensitivity and substrate metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol

Metab. 2000 May;85(5):1912-7

139. Johannsson G. What happens when growth hormone is discontinued at completion of growth?

Metabolic aspects. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2000;13 Suppl 6:1321-6

 

Obesity: the improvement with GH treatment

 

140. Rudman D, Feller AG, Nagraj HS, Gergans GA, Laiitha PY, Goldberg AF, Schienker RA, Cohn L,

Rudman IW, Mattson DE. Effects of human growth hormone in men over 60 years old. N EngI J

Med.1990Jul5;323(1):1-6

141. Rudman D, Feller AG, Cohn L, Shetty KR, Rudman IW, Draper MW. Effects of human growth

hormone on body composition in elderiy men. Horm Res 1991;36 Suppl 1:73-81

 

        

 

158. Baum HB, Biller BM, Finkeistein JS, Cannistraro KB, Oppenhein DS, Schoenfeld DA, Michel TH.

Wittink H, Klibanski A. Effects of physiologic growth hormone therapy on bone density and body

composition in patients with adult-onset growth hormone deficiency. A randomized, placebo

controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1996 Dec 1;125(11):883-90

159. Burman P, Johansson AG, Siegbahn A, Vessby B, Karisson FA. Growth hormone (GH)-deficient

men are more responsive to GH replacement therapy than women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997

Feb;82(2):550-5

160. Schambelan M, Muiligan K, Grunfeld C, Daar ES, LaMarca A, Kotier DP, Wang J, Bozzette SA,

Breitmeyer JB. Recombinant human growth hormone in patients with HIV-associated wasting. A

randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Serostim Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1996 Dec

1;125(11):873-82

161. Lee PD, Pivamik JM, Bukar JG, Muurahainen N, Berry PS, Skoinik PR, Nerad JL, Kudsk KA,

Jackson L, EIlis KJ, Gesundheit N. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of combined insulinlike

growth factor l and low dose growth hormone therapy for wasting associated with human

immunodeficiency vírus infection. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Aug;81(8):2968-75

162. Toogood AA, Shalet SM.Growth hormone replacement therapy in the elderly with hypothalamicpituitary

disease: a dose-finding study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Jan;84(1):131-6

 

Diabetes: the association with lower GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

163. Nam SY, Kim KR, Chá BS, Song YD, Um SK, Lee HC, Huh KB. Low-dose growth hormone

treatment combined with diet restricdon decreases insulin resistance by reducing visceral fat and

increasing muscle mass in obese type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001

Aug;25(8):1101-7

 

Diabetes: the improvement with GH treatment

 

164. Gotherstrom G, Svensson J, Koranyi J, AIpsten M, Bosaeus l, Bengtsson B, Johannsson G. A

prospective study of 5 years of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient adults: sustained effects

on body composition, bone mass, and metabolic Índices. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001

Oct;86(10):4657-65

165. Svensson J, Fowelin J, Landin K, Bengtsson BA, Johansson JO. Effects of seven years of GHreplacement

therapy on insulin sensitivity in GH-deficient adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002

May;87(5):2121-7

166. Clayton KL, Holiy JM, Carisson LM, Jones J, Cheetham TD, Taylor AM, Dunger DB. Loss of the

normal relationships between growth hormone, growth hormone-binding protein and insulin-like

growth factor-1 in adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes meilitus. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf).

1994

Oct;41(4):517-24

167. Yuen KC, Frystyk J, White DK, Twickler TB, Koppeschaar HP, Harris PE, Fryklund L,

Murgatroyd

PR, Dunger DB. Improvement in insulin sensitivity without concomitant changes in body

composition and cardiovascular risk markers following fixed administration of a very low growth

hormone (GH) dose in adults with severe GH deficiency. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005

Oct;63(4):428-36

 

Rheumatism: the association with lower GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

168. Neidel J. Changes in systemic levels of insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins in

patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2001 Jan-Feb;19(1):81-4

Leal-Cerro A, Povedano J, Astorga R, Gonzaiez M, Silva H, Garcia-Pesquera F, Casanueva FF,

Dieguez C. The growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone-GH-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis in

patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Sep;84(9):3378-81

70. Bagge E, Bengtsson BA, Carisson L, Carisson J. Low growth hormone secretion in patients

with

fibromyalgia-a preliminary report on 10 patients and 10 controls. J Rheumatol. 1998

Jan;25(1):145-8

 

Rheumatism: the improvement with GH treatment

 

171. Bennett RM, Clark SC, Walczyk J. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of

growth

hormone in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Am J Med. 1998 Mar;104(3):227-31

 

142. Bengtsson BA, Éden S, Lonn L, Kvist H, Stokiand A, Lindstedt G, Bosaeus l, Tolli J, Sjostrom L,

Isaksson OG. Treatment of adutts with growth hormone (GH) deficiency with recombinant human

GH. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Feb;76(2):309-17

143. Munzer T, Harman SM, Hees P, Shapiro E, Christmas C, Bellantoni MF, Stevens TE, 0'Connor

KG, Pabst KM, St Clair C, Sorkin JD, Blackman MR. Effects of GH and/or sex steroid

administration on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat in heatthy aged women and men. J Clin

Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Aug;86(8):3604-10

144. Rodriguez-Arnao J, Jabbar A, Fulcher K, Besser GM, Ross RJ. Effects of growth hormone

replacement on physical performance and body composition in GH deficient adutts. Clin

Endocrinol

(Oxf).1999Jul;51(1):53-60

145. Soares CN, Musolino NR, Cunha Neto M, Caíres MA, Rosenthal MC, Camargo CP, Bronstein MD.

Impact of recombinant human growth hormone (RH-GH) treatment on psychiatric,

neuropsychological and clinical profiles of GH deficient adutts. A placebo-controlled trial. Arq

Neuropsiquiatr. 1999 Jun;57(2A):182-9

146. Fernholm R, Bramnert M, Hagg E, Hilding A, Baylink DJ, Mohan S, Thoren M. Growth hormone

replacement therapy improves body composition and increases bone metabolism in elderly

patients with pituitary disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Nov;85(11):4104-12

147. Attanasio AF, Lamberts SW, Matranga AM, Birkett MA, Bates PC, Valk NK, Hilsted J, Bengtsson

BA, Strasburger CJ. Adult growth hormone (GH)-deficient patients demonstrate heterogeneity

between childhood onset and adult onset before and during human GH treatment. Adult Growth

Hormone Deficiency Study Group. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Jan;82(1):82-8

148. Beshyah SA, Freemantie C, Shahi M, Anyaoku V, Merson S, Lynch S, Skinner E, Sharp P, Foale

R, Johnston DG. Replacement treatment with biosynthetic human growth hormone in growth

hormone-deficient hypopituitary adults Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1995 Jan;42(1):73-84

149. Moorkens G, Wynants H, Abs R. Effect of growth hormone treatment in patients with chronic

fatigue syndrome: a preliminary study. Growth Horm IGF Res. 1998 Apr;8 Suppl B:131-3

150. Lo JC, Muiligan K, Noor MA, Schwarz JM, Halvorsen RA, Grunfeld C, Schambelan M. The effect

of

of recombinant human growth hormone on body composition and glucose metabolism in HIV

infected patients with fat accumulation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Aug;86(8):3480-7

151. Christ ER, Cummings MH, Albany E, Umpleby AM, Lumb PJ, Wierzbicki AS, Naoumova RP

Boroujerdi MA, Sonksen PH, Russell-Jones DL. Effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement

therapy on very low density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B100 kinetics in patients with adult GH

deficiency: a stable isotope study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Jan;84(1):307-16

152. Florkowski CM, Coilier GR, Zimmet PZ, Livesey JH, Espiner EA, Donald RA. Low-dose growth

hormone replacement lowers plasma leptin and fat stores without affecting body mass Índex in

adults with growth hormone deficiency. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1996 Dec;45(6):769-73

153. Ezzat S, Fear S, Gailiard RC, Gayle C, Landy H, Marcovitz S, Mattioni T, Nussey S, Rees A

Svanberg E. Gender-specific responses of lean body composition and non-gender-specific cardiac

function improvement after GH replacement in GH-deflcient adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002

Jun;87(6):2725-33

154. Weaver JU, Monson JP, Noonan K, John WG, Edwards A, Evans KA, Cunningham J. The effect of

low dose recombinant human growth hormone replacement on regional fat distribution, insulin

sensitivity, and cardiovascular risk factors in hypopituitary adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995

Jan;80(1):153-9

155. Vahl N, Jorgensen JO, Hansen TB, Klausen IB, Jurik AG, Hagen C, Christiansen JS. The

favourable effects of growth hormone (GH) substitution on hypercholesterolaemia in GH-deficient

adults are not associated with concomitant reductions in adiposity. A 12 month placebo-controlled

study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998 Jun;22(6):529-36

156. Hansen TB, Gram J, Jensen PB, Kristiansen JH, Ekelund B, Christiansen JS, Pedersen FB

Influence of growth hormone on whole body and regional soft tissue composition in adult patients

on hemodialysis. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Clin Nephrol; 2000

Feb;53(2):99-107

157. Fisker S, Vahl N, Hansen TB, Jorgensen JO, Hagen C, Orskov H, Christiansen JS. Growth

hormone (GH) substitution for one year normallzes elevated GH-binding protein levels in GH

deficient adults secondary to a reduction in body fat. A placebo-controlled trial. Growth Horm IGF

Res. 1998Apr;8(2):105-1

    

 

172. Bennett R. Growth hormone in musculoskeletal pain states. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2005

Oct;9(5):331-8

 

Osteoporosis: the association wrth lower GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

173. Foldes J, Lakatos P, Zsadanyi J, Horvath C. Decreased serum IGF-I and dehydroepiandrosterone

sulphate may be risk factors for the development of reduced bone mass in postmenopausal women

with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Eur J Endocrinol. 1997 Mar;136(3):277-81

174. Monson JP, Abs R, Bengtsson BA, Bennmarker H, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Hernberg-Stahl E, Thoren

M, Westberg B, Wilton P, Wuster C. Growth hormone deficiency and replacement in elderly

hypopituitary adults. KIMS Study Group and the KIMS International Board. Pharmacia and

Upjolin

International Metabolic Database. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2000 Sep;53(3):281-9

175. Longobardi S, Di Relia F, Pivonello R, Di Somma C, Klain M, Maurelli L, Scarpa R, Colao A

Merola B, Lombardi G. Effects oftwo years ofgrowth hormone (GH) replacement therapy on bone

metabolism and mineral density in childhood and adulthood onset GH deficient patients. J

Endocrinol Invest. 1999 May;22(5):333-9

176. Beckers V, Milet J, Legros JJ. Prolonged treatment with recombined growth hormone improve

bone measures: study of body composition in 21 deficient adutts on treatment. Ann Endocrinol

(Paris). 2001 Dec;62(6):507-15

177. Gomez JM, Gomez N, Fiter J, Soler J. Effects of iong-term treatment with GH in the bone minei,il

density of adults with hypopituitarism and GH deficiency and after discontinuation of Gll

replacement. Horm Metab Res. 2000 Feb;32(2):66-70

178. Kaufman JM, Taelman P, Vermeulen A, Vandeweghe M. Bone mineral status in growth hormone

deficient males with isolated and multiple pituitary deficiencies of childhood onset. J Clin

Endocrinol Metab. 1992 Jan;74(1):118-23

179. Calo L, Castrignano R, Davis PA, Carraro G, Pagnin E, Giannini S, Semplicini A, D'Angelo A.

Role

of insulin-like growth factor-l in primary osteoporosis: a correlative study. J Endocrinol Invest.

2000

Apr;23(4):223-7

180. Colao A, Di Somma C, Pivonello R, Loche S, Aimaretti G, Cerbone G, Faggiano A, Corneli G

Ghigo E, Lombardi G. Bone loss is correlated to the severity of growth hormone deficiency in

adult

patients with hypopituitarism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Jun;84(6):1919-24

181. Nakaoka D, Sugimoto T, Kaji H, Kanzawa M, Yano S, Yamauchi M, Sugishita T, Chihara K

Determinants of bone mineral density and spinal fracture risk in postmenopausal Japanese

women. Osteoporos Int. 2001;12(7):548-54

182. Rico H, Dei Rio A, Vila T, Patino R, Carrera F, Espinos D. The role of growth hormone in the

pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Arch Intern Med. 1979 Nov;139(11):1263-5

183. Ljunghall S, Johansson AG, Burman P, Kampe O, Lindh E, Karisson FA. Low plasma levels of

insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in male patients with idiopathic osteoporosis. J Intern Med.

1992 Jul;232(1):59-64

 

Osteoporosis: the improvement with GH treatment

 

184. ter Maaten JC, de Bóer H, Kamp O, Stuurman L, van der Veen EA. Long-term effects of growth

hormone (GH) replacement in men with childhood-onset GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.

1999 Jul;84(7):2373-80

185. Gomez JM, Gomez N, Fiter J, Soler J. Effects of Iong-term treatment with GH in the bone mineral

density of adults with hypopituitarism and GH deficiency and after discontinuation of GH

replacement. Horm Metab Res. 2000 Feb;32(2):66-70

186. Baum HB, Biller BM, Finkeistein JS, Cannistraro KB, Oppenhein DS, Schoenfeld DA, Michel

TH,

Wittink H, Klibanski A. Effects of physiologic growth hormone therapy on bone density and body

composition in patients with adult-onset growth hormone àeticiency. A randomized, placebo

controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1996Dec 1;125(11):883-90

187. Vallmaki MJ, Salmela PI, Saimi J, Viikari J, Kataja M, Turunen H, Soppi E. Effects of42 months

of GH treatment on bone mineral density and bone turnover in GH-deficient adults. Eur J Endocrinol

1999Jun;140(6):545-54

    

 

188. Vandeweghe M, Taelman P, Kaufman JM.Short and Iong-term effects of growth hormone

treatment on bone turnover and bone mineral content in adult growth hormone-deficient males.

Clin

Endocrinol (Oxf). 1993 Oct;39(4):409-15

189. Clanget C, Seck T, Hinke V, Wuster C, Ziegler R, Pfeilschifter J. Effects of 6 years of growth

hormone (GH) treatment on bone mineral density in GH-deficient adults. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf).

2001 Jul;55(1):93-9

190. Beshyah SA, Thomas E, Kyd P, Sharp P, Fairney A, Johnston DG. The effect of growth hormone

replacement therapy in hypopituitary adults on calcium and bone metabolism. Clin Endocrinol

(0x1). 1994 Mar;40(3):383-91

191. Biller BM, Sesmilo G, Baum HB, Hayden D, Schoenfeld D, Klibanski A.Withdrawal of long-term

physiological growth horrnone (GH) administration: differential effects on bone density and body

composition in men with adult-onset GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000 Mar;85(3):970

192. Benbassat CA, Wass rman M, Laron Z. Changes in bone mineral density after discontinuation and

early reinstitution of growth hormone (GH) in patiente with childhood-onset GH deficiency.

Growth

Horm IGF Res. 1999 Oct;9(5):290-5

193. Sartorio A, Ortolani S, Galbiati E, Conte G, Vangeli V, Arosio M, Porrettí S, Faglia. Effects of 12-

month GH treatment on bone metabolism and bone mineral density in adults with adult-onset GH

deficiency. J Endocrinol Invest. 2001 Apr;24(4):224-30

194. Finkenstedt G, Gasser RW, Hofle G, Watfah C, Fridrich L. Effects of growth hormone (GH)

replacement on bone metabolism and mineral density in adutt onset of GH deficiency: resulte of a

double-blind placebo- controlled study with open follow-up. Eur J Endocrinol. 1997 Mar; 136(3)

:282-9

195. Erdtsieck RJ, Pote HA, Valk NK, Van OBM, Lamberts SW, Mulder P, Birkenhager JC. Treatment

of post-menopausal osteoporosis with a combination of growth hormone and pamidronate:a

placebo

controlled trial. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1995:43:557-565

 

Cancer: the association with lower GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

196. Woodson K, Tangrea JA, Pollak M, Copeland TD, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, Albanes D. Serum IGF-

1:

tumor marker or etiologic factor? A prospective study of prostate cancer among Finnish men.

Cancer Res. 2003 Jul 15;63(14):3991-4

197. Baffa R, Reiss K, EI-Gabry EA, Sedor J, Moy ML, Shupp-Byrne D, Strup SE, Hauck VWV,

Baserga R, Gomella LG. Low serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1): a significant association

with prostate cancer. Tech Urol. 2000 Sep;6(3):236-9

198. Finne P, Auvinen A, Koistinen H, Zhang WM, Maattanen L, Rannikko S, Tammela T, Seppala M,

Hakama M, Stenman UH. Insulin-like growth factor l is not a usefui marker of prostate cancer in

men with elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000

Aug;85(8):2744-7

199. Chokkallngam AP, Pollak M, Filimore CM, Gao YT, Stanczyk FZ, Deng J, Sesterhenn IA,

Mostofi

FK, Fears TR, Madigan MP, Ziegler RG, Fraumeni JF Jr, Hsing AW. Insulin-like growth factors

and

prostate cancer: a population-based case-control study in China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers

Prev. 2001 May;10(5):421-7

200. Colombo F, lannotta P, Fachinetti A, Giuiiani F, Comaggia M, Finzi G, Mantero G, Fraschini F,

Malesci A, Bersani M, et ai. [Changes in hormonal and biochemical parameters in gastric

adenocarcinoma Minerva Endocrinol. 1991 Jul-Sep;16(3):127-39

 

Cancer: improvement with GH treatment?

 

201. Torosian MH. Growth hormone and prostate cancer growth and metastasis in tumor-bearing

animais. J Pediatr Endocrinol. 1993 Jan-Mar;6(1):93-7

202. Ng EH, Rock CS, Lazarus DD, Stiaino-Coico L, Moldawer LL, Lowry SF. Insulin-like growth

factor I preserves host lean tissue mass in cancer cachexia. Am J Physiol. 1992 Mar;262(3 Pt 2):R426-31

         Strasburger CJ. Adult growth hormone (GH)-deficient patients demonstrate heterogeneity     

 

203. Bartiett DL, Charland S, Torosian MH. Growth hormone, insulin, and somatostatin therapy of

cancer cachexia. Cancer. 1994 Mar 1;73(5):1499-504

 

Longevity: the association with GH and/or IGF-1 levels

 

204. Rosen T, Bengtsson BA. Premature mortallty due to cardiovascular disease in hypopituitarism.

Lancet 1990 Aug 4:336(8710):285-8

205. Besson A, Salemi S, Gallati S, Jenal A, Horn R, Muilis PS, Muilis PE.. Reduced longevity in

untreated patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003

Aug;88(8):3664-7

206. Bates AS, Vant Hoff W, Jones PJ , Clayton RN. The effect of hypopituitarism on life expectancy. J

Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996:81 (3):1169-72

 

Longevity: the improvement with GH treatment

 

207. Khansari DN, Gustad T. Effects of long-term, low-dose growth hormone therapy on immune

function and life expectancy ofmice. Mech Ageing Dev. 1991 Jan;57(1):87-100

208. Sonntag WE, Carter CS, Ikeno Y, Ekenstedt K, Carison CS, Loeser RF, Chakrabarty S, Lee S

Bennett C, Ingram R, Moore T, Ramsey M. Adult-onset growth hormone and insulin-like growth

factor l deficiency reduces neoplastic disease, modifies age-related pathology, and increases life

span. Endocrinology. 2005;146(7):2920-32

209. Bengtsson BA, Koppeschaar HP, Abs R, Bennmarker H, Hernberg-Stahl E, Westberg B, Wilton P

Monson JP, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Wuster C. Growth hormone replacement therapy is not

associated with any increase in mortallty. KIMS Study Group. J Clin Endocrinol Metal

1999;84(11):4291-2

 

GH diagnosis

 

210. Hoffman DM. 0'Sullivan AJ, Baxter RC, Ho KKY. Diagnosis ofgrowth-hormone deficiency in

adults

Lancet 1994:343:1064-8

 

Biochemical and clinical differences between childhood and adulthood-onset GH deficiency

 

211. Attanasio AF, Lamberts SW, Matranga AM. Birkett MA, Bates PC, Valk NK, Hilsted J, Bengtssson

 

B f-,

between childhood onset and adult onset before and during human GH treatment. Adult Growth

Hormone Deficiency Study Group. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Jan;82(1):82-8

 

GH clinical evaluation

 

212. Cuneo RC, Salomon F, McGauley GA, Sonksen PH. The growth hormone deficiency syndrome in

adults. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1992,37:387-97

213. Christ ER, Carroll PV, Russell JDL, Sonksen PH. The consequences of growth hormone deficiency

in adulthood, and the effects of growth hormone replacement. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1997

127:1440-9

214. Labram EK, Wilkin TJ. Growth hormone deficiency in adults and its response to growth hormone

replacement. QJM. 1995:88:391-9

215. Rosen T, Johannsson G, Johansson JO, Bengtsson BA. Consequences of growth hormone

deficiency jn adults and the benefits and risks of recombinant human growth hormone treatment

HormRes. 1995:43:93-9

216. Jorgensen JO, Muller J, MollerJ, Wolthers T, Vahl N, Juul A, Skakkebaek NE, Christiansen JS

Adult growth hormone deficiency. Horm Res. 1994:42:235-241

217. Lieberman SA, Hoffman AR. Growth hormone deficiency in adulls:characteristics and response to

growth hormone replacement. J Pediatr. 1996:128:S58-S60.

 

Serum GH tests

 

Serum IGF-1

 

218. Breier BH, Gallaher BW, Gluckman PD. Radioimmunoassay for insulin-like growth factor-l

solutions to some potential problems and pitfails. J Endocrinol. 1991 Mar:128(3):347-57

219. Ivan D, Brabant G, Kann PH: German KIMS Board. Appiicability of recentiy established reference

         ITTcould misclassify some hypopituitary patientspartia/ GH or ACTH deficiency")     . Girard J. Apparent growth hormone levels in plasma and urine. Methodological "artefacts". Nuci

 

values for serum insulin-like growth factor 1: A comparison of two assays-an (automated)

chemiluminescence immunoassay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clin Lab

2005:51 (7-8):381-7

 

Low serum IGF-1 for diagnosis o f GH deficiency

 

220. Hartman ML. Crowe BJ, Biller BM, Ho KK, Clenimons DR, Clipman JJ; HyposCCS Advisory

Board; U.S. HypoCCS Study Group. Which patients do not require a GH stimulation test for the

diagnosis of adult GH deficiency? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Feb;87(2):477-85

221. Granada ML. Murillo J, Lucas A, Sallnas l, LIopis MA, Castells l, Foz M, Sanmarti A. Diagnostic

efficiency of serum IGF-I. IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), IGF-I'IGFBP-3 molar ratio and

urinary

GH measurements in the diagnosis of adult GH deficiency: importance ofan appropriate reference

population. Eur J Endocrinol. 2000 Mar:142(3);243-53

222. Hilding A. Hall K, Wivall-Helleryd IL, Saaf M, Melin AL. Thoren M. Serum levels of insulin-like

growth factor l in 152 patients with growth hormone deficiency, aged 19-82 years, in relation to

those in healthy subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Jun;84(6i:2013-9

223. Milani D, Carmichael JD. Welkowitz J, Ferris S. Reitz RE, Danoff A, Kleinberg DL. Variability and

reliability ofsingle serum IGF-I measurements: impact on determining predictability of risk ratios in

disease development. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 May:89(5):2;^71-4

 

Serum IGF-1 and IGF-BP-3

 

224. Schutt BS, Weber K. EImlinger MW, Ranke MB. Measunng IGF-I, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 from

dried blood spots on filter paper is not only practical but aiso reliable. Growth Horm IGF Res 2003

Apr-Jun:13(2-3)75-80

225. BIum WF. Albertsson-Wikland K, Rosberg S, Ranke MB. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor

I

(IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 3 reflect spontaneous growth hormone secretion. J Clin Endocrinol

Mcíab. 1993Jun:76(6):1610-6

 

Arginine with GHRH test as good a test as the insulin stimulation test for evaluation of GH

 

secretion in adults, but safer, excellent alternative

 

226. Donaubauer J, Kiess W, Kratzsch J, Nowak T, Steinkamp H. Wiligerodt H, Keller E Reassessment

of growth hormone secretion in young adult patients with childhood-onset growth

hormone deficiency. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2003 Apr:58(4):456-63

227. Ghigo E, Goffi S, Nicolosi M, Arvat E, Valente F, Mazza E, Ghigo MC, Camanni

228. F. Growth hormone (GH) responsiveness to combined administration of arginine and GH-releasing

hormone does not vary with age in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Dec;71(6):1481-5

229. Biller BM, Samueis MH, Zagar A, Cook DM, Arafah BM, Bonert V, Stavrou S, Kleinberg DL

Chipman JJ. Hartman ML. Sensitivity and specificity of six tests for the diagnosis of adu!t GH

deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;87(5):2067-79

 

Insulin stimulation test

 

230. Pfeifer M, Kanc K, Verhovec R, Kocijancic A. Reproducibility of tne insulin tolerance test (ITr) tor

assessment of growth hormone and cortisol secretion in normal and hypopituitary adult men. Clin

Endocrinol (Oxf). 2001 Jan;54(1):17-22("'a s/ng/e

with

 

How many lab tests

 

231. Lissett CA, Thompson EG, Rahim A, Brennan BM. Shalet SM. How many tests are required to

diagnose growth hormone (GH) deficiency in adults? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1999 Nov;51(5):551-7

 

24-hour urine tests

 

Urinary Growth Hormone

 

232. Hourd P, Edwards R. Current methods for the measurement c f growth hormone in urine Clin

Endocrinol (Oxf). 1994 Feb;40(2):155-70

233

Med Biol. 1994 Apr;21(3)-381-92

 

 

 

     Jorgensen JO. Human growth hormone replacement therap/: pharmacological and clinical

 

289. Main KM, Lindholm J, Vandeweghe M, Skakkebaek NE, Urinary growth hormone excretion in

acromegaly: diagnostic value in mild disease activity. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 19Í:

Nov:129(5):409-13

290. Bates AS, Evans AJ, Jones P, Clayton RN. Assessment ot Gh status in acromegaly using serum

growth hormone, serum insulin-like growth factor-1 and urinary growth hormone excretion. Clin

Endocrinol (Oxf). 1995 Apr:42(4):417-23

291. Evans AJ, Willis DS, Wood PJ. The assay of urinary growth hor-none in normal and acromegallc

adults. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1991 Nov;35(5):413-8

292. Lunt H, Tucker AJ, Bullen H, Gibbs C, Wilkin TJ. Overnight urinary growth hormone

measurement

in the diagnosis ofacromegaly. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1990 Aug;33(2):205-12

293. Winer LM, Shaw MA, Baumann G. Urinary growth hormone excretion rates in normal and

acromegallc man: a critical appraisal of its potential clinical utility. J Endocrinol Invest. 1989 Jul-

Aug;12(7):461-7

294. Albini CH, Sotos J. Sherman B, Johanson A, Ceiniker A, Hopwood N, Quattrin T, Milis BJ,

MacGillivray MH. Diagnostic significance of urinary growth hormone measurements in children

with

growth failure: correlation between serum and urine growth hormone. Pediatr Res. 1991

Jun;29(6):619-22

295. Gill MS, Toogood AA, 0'Neill PA, Thorner MO, Shalet SM, Clayton PE. Urinary growth hormone

(GH), insulin-like growth factor l (IGF-I), and IGF-binding protein-3 measurements in the

diagnosis

ofadultGHdeficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Jul;83(7):2562-5

296. Aman J, Jones l. Urinary growth hormone determination in prepubertal children using a

modification of a commercial kit designed for determination of growth hormone in serum. Scand J

Clin Lab Invest 1994 May;54(3):227-33

297. Audi L, Antonia LIopis M, Luisa Granada M. Hermoso F, dei Valle J, Dolores Rodriguez-Arnao

M.

Bei J, Luzuriaga C, Gallego E, Marin F: Grupo Espanol de Estúdio de Ia Talla Baja. Low

sensitivity

of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and urinary GH in the diagnosis of growth hormone insufficiency in slowlygrowing

short-statured boys. Grupo Espanol de Estúdio de Ia Talla Baja] Med Clin (Barc). 2001

Jan

13 116(1):6-11

 

Çorrective GH Therapv

 

298. Hertoghe T. Growth hormone therapy in aging adults. Anti-Aging Medical Therapeutics (Eds Klatz

RM & Goldman R) 1997:1:10-28

 

GH Medications

 

GH subcutaneous injections

 

299.

aspects. EndocrRev. 1991:! 2:189-207.

300. Beshyah SA, Freemantie C, Shah M, Anyaoku V, Merson S, Lynch S, Skinner E, Sharp P, Foale

R,

Johnston DG. Replacement treatment with biosynthetic human growth hormone in growth

hormone-deficient hypopituitary adults. Clin Endocrinol. 1995:42:73-84

301. Kehely A, Bates PC, Frewer P, Birkett M, BIum WF, Mamessier P, Ezzat S, Ho KK, Lombardi G,

Luger A, Marek J, Russell-Jones D, Sonksen P, Attanasio AF. Short-term safety and efficacy of

human GH replacement therapy in 595 adults with GH deficiency: a comparison of two dosage

algorithms. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;87(5):1974-9

302. Jostel A, Mukheriee A, Alenfall J, Smethurst L, Shalet SM. A new sustained-release preparation of

human growth hormone and its pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and safety profile. Clin

Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 May;62(5):623

 

271. Crowne EC, Wallace WH, Shalet SM, Addison GM, Price DA. Relationship between urinary and

serum growth hormone and pubertal status. Arch Dis Child. 1992 Jan;67(1):91-5

272. Skiiner AM. Pnce DA. Addison GM, Clayton PE. Mackay RI, S.jo A. Mui CY. The influence of

age

size, pubertal status and renal factors on urinary growth hormone excretion in normal children and

adolescents. Growth Regul. 1992 Dec:2(4;:156-60

273. Skinner AM. Clayton PE. Price DA Addison GM. Mui CY. V.iriability in the urinary excretion in

growth hormone in children: a comparison with other urirary proteins. J Endocrinol. 1993

Aug:138(2):337-43

274. Fortes ES. Chacra AR. Kunii HS. Vieira JG. Russo EM. Nocturnal urinary growth hormone

excretion as a criterion for growth hormone deficiency. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1995 Apr:28(4):433-

8

275. Skinner AM, Clayton PE. Addison GM Price DA. Nocturnal urinary growth hormone excretion

growth hormone-deficient children on and off growth hormone treatment. Horm Res

1995:44(4):147-51

276. Braegger CP. Torresani T. Murch SH Savage MO Walker-Smith JA, MacDonald TT. Urinary

growth hormone in growth-impaired children with chronic Inflammatory bowel disease. J Pediatr

Gastroenterol Nutr. 1993 Jan:16(1):49-52

277. Tomita H Ogawa M. Kamijo T. Mori O. Ishikawa E. Mohn Z, Murakami Y. A highly sensitive

Sandwich enzyme immunoassay of urinary growth hormone in children with short stature,

Turner’s

syndrome and simple obesity. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1989 Oct:121(4):513-9

278. Quattrin 1. Albini CH, Cara JF. Vandien RL, Milis BJ. MacGillivray MH. Quantitation of urinal

sornatomedin-C and growth hormone in preterm and fullterm infants and normal children. J Chi

Endocrinol Metab. 1988 Apr:66(4):792-7

279. Jacobsen S, Main K, Danneskiold-Samsoe B. Skakkebaek NE. A controlled study on serum

insulin-like growth factor-l and urinary excretion ot growth honnone in fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol

1995 Jun;22(6):1138-40

280. Murao K. Takahara J, Sato M, Tamaki M, Niimi M. Ishida T. Reiationship between thyroid

function

and urinary growth hormone secretion in patients with hyper- and hypothyroidism. Endocr J. 1994

Oct:41(5):517-22

281. Umezawa S. Urinary hGH, albumin, alpha 1 MG and beta 2 MG in normal and diabetic children

Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi. 1989 Jan 20;65(1):55-65

282. Suzuki K, Miyata H. Suzuki T, Kajinuma H. Evaluation and clinical applications of measurement

urinary growth hormone in diabetic subjects. Diabetes. 1989 Dec;38(12):1567-72

283. Pan FP, Stevenson JL. Donaldson DL Levy J. Wiegmann T, Moore WV. Correlation of urinary

albumin and beta-2-microglobulin and growth hormone excretion in patients with diabetes mellitus

and short stature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Sep:71(3):611-7

284. Hattori N, Kato Y, Murakami Y, Hashida S. Ishikawa E. Mohri 2, Imura H. Urinary growth

hormone

levels measured by ultrasensitive enzyme immunoassay in patients with renal insufficiency. J Clin

Endocrinol Metab 1988 Apr:66(4):727-32

285. Matsuura M. Kitagawa T, Hashida S, Murakami Y. High urinary levels of human growth hormone

in

children with renal tubular dysfunction. Nephron. 1989;51(4):561-2

286. Perrone L. Sinisi AA, Criscuolo T, Manzo T, Maresca G. Bellastella A, del Gado R. Plasma and

urinary growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor l in children with chronic renal

insufficiency

Child Nephrol Urol. 1990;10(2):72-5

287. Mauri M, Pico AM, Alfayate R, Dominguez JR, Camará R, Miralles C. Usefulness of urinary

grown

hormone (GH) measurement for evaluating endogenous GH secretion in acromegaly. Horm Res

1993:39(1-2):13-8

288. Pholsena M, LE Bouc Y. Rousseau E. Christol R, Birman P, Perin L, Girard F. Evaluation of

acromegaly by measurement of 24-hourly urinary growth hormone excretion. Acta Endocrinol

(Copenh). 1993 Jan;128(1):9-14

 

253. Main KM, Jarden M, Angelo L, Dinesen B, Hertel NT, Juul A, Mullei J, Skakkebaek NE. The

impact

of gender and puberty on reference values for urinary growth hormone excretion: a study of 3

morning urine samples in 517 healthy children and adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994

Sep;79(3):865-71

254. Juul A, Main K, BIum WF, Lindholm J, Ranke MB, Skakkebaek NE. The ratio between serum levels

ofinsulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and the IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-1, 2 and 3) decreases with

age in healthy adults and is increased in acromegallc patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1994

Jul;41(1):85-93

255. Juul A, Scheike T, Pedersen AT, Main KM, Andersson AM, Federsen LM, Skakkebaek NE.

Changes in serum concentrations of growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor and

in&ulinlike

growth factor-binding proteins 1 and 3 and unnary growth hormone excretion during the

menstrual cycle. Hum Reprod. 1997 Oct;12(10):2123-8

256. Flanagan DE. Moore VM, Godsland IF, Cockington RA, Robinson JS, Phillips Dl. Reduced foetal

growth and growth hormone secretion in adult life. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1999 Jun;50(6):735-40

257. Flanagan DE, Taylor MC, Parfitt V, Mardell R, Wood PJ, Leatherdale BA. Urinary growth hormone

following exercise to assess growth hormone production in adults. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1997

Apr;46(4):425-9

258. Saugy M, Cardis C, Schweizer C, Veuthey JL. Rivier L. Detection of human growth hormone

doping in urine: out of competition tests are necessary. J Chromatogr B Biomed AppI. 1996 Dec

6;687(1):201-11

259. Main KM, Jansson C, Skakkebak N, Albertsson-Wikland K. Influence of gender on the correlation

between plasma growth hormone profiles and urinary growth hormone excretion. Horm Res.

1997;48(1):16-22

260. Thalange NK, Gill MS, Gill L, Whatmore AJ, Addison GM, Price DA, Clayton PE. Infradian

rhythms

in urinary growth hormone excretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Jan;81(1):100-6

261. Gelander L, Kariberg JP, Larsson LA, Rosberg S, Albertsson-Wikland K. Overnight urinary growth

hormone in normally growing prepubertal children: effect of urine' volume. The one-year growth

study. Horm Res. 1998,49(1 ):8-16

262. Fall CH, Clark PM, Hindmarsh PC. Clayton PE. Shiell AW, Law CM. Urinary GH and IGF-I

excretion in nine year-old children: relation to sex, current size and size at birth. Clin Endocrinol

(Oxf). 2000 Jul;53(1):69-76

263. Edge JA, Hourd P, Edwards R, Dunger DB. Urinary growth hormone during puberty in normal and

diabetic children. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1989 Apr;30(4):413-20

264. Phillip M, Chalew SA, Stene MA, Kowarski AA. The value of urinary growth hormone

determination

for assessment of growth hormone deficiency and compliance with growth hormone therapy. Am J

Dis Child. 1993 May;147(5):553-7

265. Sanmarti A, Lucas A, Granada ML, Sallnas l, Reverter JL, Cuatrecasas JM, Foz M, Audi L. Effect

of chronic clonidine treatment on urinary growth hormone excretion and linear growth in children

with shortstature. Horm Res. 1990;34(5-6):193-6

266. Quattrin T, Albini CH, Milis BJ, MacGillivray MH. Comparison of urinary growth hormone and

IGF-I

excretion in small- and appropriate-for-gestational-age infants and healthy children. Pediatr Res,

1990Sep;28(3):209-12

267. Walker JM, Wood PJ, Williamson S, Betts PR, Evans AJ. Urinary growth hormone excretion as a

screening test for growth hormone deficiency. Arch Dis Child 1990 Jan;65(1):89-92

268. Tanaka T, Yoshizawa A, Miki Y, Ito J, Tanaka M, Tanae A, Yokoya S, Hibi l. Clinical usefulness of

urinary growth hormone measurement in short children. Acta Paediatr Scand SuppI. 1990:366:155-

8

269. Butt DA, Sochett EB. Urinary growth hormone: a screening test r"or growth hormone sufficiency.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1997 Oct;47(4):447-54

270. Price DA, Addison GM, Herbert ED. Increase in urinary growth hormone excretion in puberty. Arch

Dis Child. 1990Nov;65(11):1203-4

 

234. Bullen H, Wilkin TJ. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for urinary growth hormone

suitable for use in the routine laboratory. The Wessex Growth Study. J Immunol Methods. 1989 Jul

26;121(2):247-52

235. Haffner D, Schaefer F, Girard J, Ritz E, Mehis O. Metabolic clearance of recombinant human

growth hormone in health and chronic renal failure. J Clin Invest. 1994 Mar;93(3):1163-71

236. Okuno A, Yano K, Itoh Y, Hashida S, Ishikawa E, Mohri Z, Murakami Y.Urine growth hormone

determinations compared with other methods in the assessment of growth hormone secretion. Acta

Paediatr Scand SuppI. 1987:337:74-81

237. Sukegawa l, Hizuka N, Takano K, Asakawa K, Horikawa R, Hashida S, Ishikawa E, Mohri Z

Murakami Y, Shizume K. Urinary growth hormone (GH) measurements are useful for evaluation

endogenous GH secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988 Jun;66(6):1119-23

238. McConway MG, Smith KA, Beastall GH. Development and evaluation of a direct

immunofiuorimetric assay for urinary growth hormone. Ann Clin Biochem. 1999 Sep;36 ( Pt 5):649

54

239. Kohno H, Murakami Y, Kodaira T. Urinary human growth hormone measurement using a highly

sensitive Sandwich enzyme immunoassay: diagnostic and therapeutic uses in patients with growth

hormone deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Dec;71(6):1496-500

240. Braschi S, Faivre A, Charbonnel B. Normal values of growth hormone assay in urine in adults

established with a commercial kit. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1994 Jun;42(6):621-4

241. Hizuka N, Takano K, Asakawa K, Sukegawa l, Horikawa R, Yoshizawa Y, Saito S, Shizume K

Urinary IGF-I measurement and its clinical application. Acta Paediatr Scand SuppI. 1988:347:127

33

242. Albini CH, Quattrin T, Vandien RL, MacGillivray MH. Quantitation of urinary growth hormone in

children with normal and abnormal growth. Pediatr Res. 1988 Jan;23(1):89-92

243. Sukegawa l, Hizuka N, Takano K, Asakawa K, Horikawa R, Hashida S, Ishikawa E, Mohri Z

Murakami Y, Shizume K. Measurement of nocturnal urinary growth hormone values. Acta

Endocrinol (Copenh). 1989Aug;121(2):290-6

244. Granada ML, Murillo J, Lucas A, Sallnas l, LIopis MA, Castells l, Foz M, Sanmarti A. Diagnostic

efficiency ofserum IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio and urinary

GH measurements in the diagnosis of adult GH deficiency: importance of an appropriate reference

population. EurJ Endocrinol. 2000 Mar;142(3):243-53

245. Hattori N, Shimatsu A, Kato Y, Koshiyama H, Ishikawa Y, Tanoh T, Assadian H, Imura H. Urinary

excretion of human growth hormone: daily variation and relationship with albumin and alpha 1

microglobulin in urine. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1989 Oct;121(4):533-7

246. Hattori N, Shimatsu A, Yamanaka C, Momoi T, Imura H. Nocturnal urinary growth hormone

excretion in children with shortstature. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1988 Sep;119(1 ):113-7

247. Weissberger AJ, Ho KY, Stuart MC. Quantification of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion by

centrifugal ultrafiltration and radioimmunoassay: appraisal of the relationship between 24 h urinary

GH and mean 24 h serum GH levels in normal and abnormal states of GH secretion. Clin

Endocrinol (Oxf). 1989 Jun;30(6):687-98

248. Girard J, Fischer-WaseIs T. Measurement of urinary growth hormone. A noninvasive method to

assess the 'growth hormone status. Horm Res. 1990;33 SuppI 4:12-8

249. Nukada O, Moriwake T, Kanzaki S, Katayama M, Higuchi J, Kimoto H. Age-related changes in

urinary growth hormone level and its clinical application. Acta Paediatr Jpn. 1990 Feb;32(1):32-8

250. Quade A, Rahn M, Schweikert HU, Bidiingmaier F, Klingmuller D. Urinary excretion of GH in

healthy individuais and patients with acromegaly, hypopituitarism and dwarfism. Acta Endocrinol

(Copenh). 1993 Jan;128(1):24-8

251. Bates AS, Evans AJ, Jones P, Clayton RN. Assessment of GH status in adults with GH deficiency

using serum growth hormone, serum insulin-like growth factor-l and urinary growth hormone

excretion. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1995 Apr;42(4):425-30

252. Lin MH, Lin DY. Measurements of urinary growth hormone in the assessment of its secretory

status. J Formos Med Assoe. 1993 Sep;92(9):807-11

   Alood DF. Trainer PJ. Grossman("The incidence of oedema and cases with    

 

Intranasal GH

 

303. Hedin L, OIsson B, Diczfalusy M, Flyg C, Petersson AS, Rosberg S, Albertsson-Wikland K.

Intranasat administration of human growth hormone (hGH) in combination with amembrane

permeation enhancer in patients with GH deficiency: a pharmacokinetic study. J Clin Endocrinol

Metab. 1993 Apr;76(4):962-7

 

GH treatment: dosage

 

304. MacGillivray MH. Baptista J, Johanson A. Outcome of a four-year randomized study ofdaily verus

three times weekly somatotropin treatment in prepubertal naive growth hormone-deficient children

J Clin Endocrinol Metabol. 1996:81:1806-9

305. de Bóer H, Blok GJ, Popp-Snijders C, Stuurman L. Baxter RC van der Veen E. Monitoring of

growth hormone replacement therapy in adults, based on measurement of serum markers J Clin

Endocrinol Metabol. 1996:81:1371-7

306. de Bóer H. Blok GJ, Voerman B, de Vries P. Popp-Snijders C, van der Veen E. The optimal

growth hormone replacement dose in adults, derived from bioimpedance analysis. J Clin

Endocrinol

Metab. 1995 Jul;80(7):2069-76.

307. Growth Hormone Research Society. Consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of

adults with growth hormone deficiency: surnmary statement of the Growth Hormone Research

Society Workshop on Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998:83:379-

81

308. Burman P, Johansson AG. Siegbahn A, Vessby B. Karisson FA. Growth hormone deficient men

are more lesponsive to GH replacement therapy than women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab

1997:82:550-5

309. Drake WM, Coyte D, Camacho-Hubner, Jivanji NM, Kaltsas G.

AB. Besser GM. Monson JP. Optmizing growth hormone replacement therapy by dose titration in

hypopituitary adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998:83:9313-9

310. Weksler ME Hormone replacement therapy for men:has the time come? Genatrics. 1995:50:52

311. Underwood LE, Attie KM. Baptista J; Genentech Collaborative Study Group. Growth hormone

(GH

dose-response in young adults with childhood-onset GH deficiency: a two-year, multicenter

multiple-dose, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Nov;88(11):5273-80

312. Chihara K, Koledova E, Shimatsu A, Kato Y. Kohno H, Tanaka T. Teramoto A, Bates PC.

Attanasio

AF An individuallzed GH dose regimen for long-term GH treatment in Japanese patients with adult

GH deficiency. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005 Jul;153(1):57-65

a high IGF-I level were less frequent under the IGF-I controlled controlled regimen compared

with

those duríng the fixed-dose titration method")

 

GH treatment: interferences or associations

 

313. Bellantoni MF, Vittone J, Campfield AT, Bass KM, Harman SM, Blackman MR. Effects of oral

vs.

transdermal estrogen on the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor l axis in younger and older

postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996:81:2848-53

314. Liu L. Merriam GR, Sherins RJ. Chronic sex steroid exposure increases mean plasma GH

concentration and pulse amplitude in men with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. J Clin

Endocrinol Metab. 1987:64:651-6

315. Moe KE, Prinz PN, Larsen LH, Vitiello MV. Reed SÓ. Merriam GR. Growth hormone in

postmenopausal women after long-term oral estrogen replacement therapy. J Gerontol A Biol Si

Med Sei. 1998 Mar;53(2):B117-24

316. Guidice LC. Insulin-like growth factors and ovarian follicular dfvelopment Endocrine Review

1992:13: 641-69

 

GH treatment: safety, side effects, complications

 

317. Monson JP Long-term experience with GH replacement therapy: efficacy and safety. Eur J

Endocrinol. 2003 Apr;148 Suppl 2:S9-14

  

 

318. Cohn L, Feller AG, Draper MW, Rudman IW, Rudman D Carpal tunnel syndrome and

gynaecomastia during growth hormone treatment of elderly men with low circulating IGF-I

concentrations. Clin Endocrinol Oxf. 1993 :39:417-25

319. Daughaday WH. The possible autocrine/paracrine and endocrine 'oles of insulin-like growth

factors of human tumors. Endocrinology.1990;127:1-4

320. Ezzat S, Melmed S. Clinical review 18: Are patients with acromegaly at increased risk for

neoplasia? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991:72:245-9

321. Brunner JE, Johnson CC, Zafar S, Peterson EL, Brunner JF, Meilinger RC. Colon cancer and

polyps in acromegaly: increased risk associated with family history of colon cancer. Clin

Endocrinol

(Oxf). 1990;32:65-71

322. Bengtsson BA. Ed'en S, Ernest l, Od'en A, Sjogren B. Epidemiology and long-term survival in

acromegaly: a study of 166 cases diagnosed between 1955 and 1984. Acta Med Scand. 1988:

223:327-35

323. Massa G, Vanderschueren-Lodeweyckx M. Bouillon R. Five-year follow-up of growth hormone

antibodies in growth hormone deficient children treated with recombinant human growth hormone

Clin Endocrinol. 1993:38:137-42

324. Kaplan SL, August GP, Blethen SL, Brown DR, Hintz RL, Johansen A, PIotnick LP, Underwood

LE, Bell JJ, Blizzard RM, Foley TP. Hopwood NJ, Kirkland RT, Rosenfeld RG, Van Wyk JJ.

Clinical studies with recombinant-DNA-derived methionyl human growth hormone in growth

hormone deficient children. Lancet. 1986:1:697-700

325. Milner RDG, Barnes ND, Buckler JMH, Carson DJ, Hadden DR. Hughes IA, Johnston Dl, Parkin

JM, Price DA, Rayner PH, Savage DCL, Savage MO, Smith CS, Swift PG

326. Pirazzoli P, Cacciari E, Mandini M, Cicognani A, Zucchini S, Sganga T, Capelli M. Follow-up

antibodies

to growth hormone in 210 growth hormone-deficient children treated with different

commercial products. Acta Paediatr. 1995 :84:1233-6

327. Malozowski S, Tanner LA, Wysowski D, Fleming GA. Growth hormone, insulin-like growth

factor I. and benign intracranial hypertension. N Engi J Med. 1993:329:665-6

328. Blethen SL, Allen DB, Graves D, August G, Moshang T, Rosenfeld R. Safety of recombinant

deoxyribonucleic acid-derived growth hormone: The National Cooperative Growth Study

experience. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996:81:1704-10

 

GH secretagogues

 

329. Borges JL, Blizzard RM, Evans WS, Furlanetto R, Rogol AD, Kaiser DL, Rivier J. Vale W,

Thorner MO, Stimulation of growth hormone and somatomedin C in idiopathic GH-deficient subjects by

intermittent pulsatile administration of human pancreatic tumor GH-releasing factor, J Clin

Endocrinol Metab. 1984:59:1-6

330. Corpas E, Harman SM, Pineyro MA, Roberson R, Blackman MR. Growth hormone (GH)-

releasing hormone-(l-29) twice daily reverses the decreased GH and insulin-like growth factor-I levels in old

men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992:75:530-5

331. Vittone J, Blackman MR, Busby-Whitehead J, Tsiao C, Stewart KJ, Tobin J, Stevens T, Bellantom

MF. Rogers MA, Baumann G, Roth J, Harman SM, Spencer RG. Effects ofsingle nightly

injections of growth hormone-releasing hormone GHRH 1-29 in healthy elderly men. Metabolism.

1997:46:89-96

332. Khorram O, Laughlin GA, Yen SSC. Endocrine and metabolic effects of tong-term administration

of [Nle27] growth hormone-releasing hormone (1-29)NHz in age-advanced men and women. J Clin

Endocrinol Metab. 1997:82:1472-9

333. Chapman IM, Bach MA, van Cauter E, Farmer M, Krupa D, Taylor AM, Schilling AM, Cole KY,

Skiles EH, Pczzoli SS. Stimulation of the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor l axis

by daily oral administration of a GH secretagogue MK-677 in healthy elderly subjects. J Clin

Endocrinol Metab. 1996:81:4249-57

 

 

 

 

 

Referências:

Senescence is associated with a decline of the arowth hormone (GH) axis:

Senescence is associated with lower GH and IGF-1 levels and increased somatostatin

 

1. Rudman D, Kutner MH, Rogers CM, Lubin MF, Fleming GA, Bain RP. Impaired growth hormone

secretion in the adult population: relation to age and adiposity. J Clin Invest. 1981 May;67(5):136-9

2. Bando H, Zhang C, Takada Y, Yamasaki R, Saito S. Impaired secretion of growth hormonereleasing

hormone, growth hormone and IGF-I in elderly men. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1991

Jan;124(1):31-3

3. Iranmanesh A, Lizarralde G, Veldhuis JD. Age and relative adiposity are specific negative

determinants of the frequency and amplitude of growth hormone (GH) secretory bursts and the

half-life ofendogenous GH in healthy men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991 Nov;73(5):1081-8

4. Rudman D, Rao UMP. The hypothalamic-growth hormone-somatomedin C axis: The effect of

Aging. In: Endocrinology & Metabolism in the ElderI y1992, Eds Morley JC & Korenman S0,

Blaclwell Sc PubI, Boston-USA

5. Rolandi E, Franceschini R, Marabini A, Messina V, Cataidi A, Salvemini M, Barreca T. Twentyfourhour

beta-endorphin secretory pattern in the elderly. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1987

Aug;115(4):441-6

 

Senescence is associated with alterations in the circadian cycle of serum GH:

 

a reduced amplitude and aphase advance

6. Mazzoccoli G, Correra M, Bianco G, De Cata A, Balzanelli M, Giuiiani A, Tarquini R. Age-related

changes of neuro-endocrine-immune interactions in healthy humans. J Biol ReguI Homeost

Agents. 1997 Oct-Dec;11(4):143-7

 

GH treatment mav oppose and GH deficiency mav trígqer several mechanisms of senescence

Failure of repairsystems:

7. Revhaug A, Mjaaland M. Growth hormone and surgery. Horm Res. 1993;40(1-3):99-101

8. Dahigren LA, van der Meulen MC, Bertram JE, Starrak GS, Nixon AJ. Insulin-like growth factor-l

improves cellular and molecular aspects of heallng in a collagenase-induced model of flexor

tendinitis. J Orthop Res. 2002 Sep;20(5):910-9

 

Immune deficiency:

9. Wise T, Klindt J, Macdonald GJ, Ford JJ. Effects of neonatal sexual differentiation, growth hormone

and testosterone on thymic weights and thymosin-beta 4 in hypophysectomized rats. J Reprod

Immunol. 1991 Jan;19(1):43-54

10. Knyszynski A, AdIer-Kunin S, Globerson A. Effects of growth hormone on thymocyte development

from progenitor cells in the bone marrow. Brain Behav Immun. 1992 Dec;6(4):327-40

11. Beschorner WE, Divic J, Pulido H, Yao X, Kenworthy P, Bruce G. Enhancement of thymic recovery

after cyclosporine by recombinant human growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I.

Transplantation. 1991 Nov;52(5):879-84

12. Murphy WJ, Durum SK, Longo DL. Role of neuroendocrine hormones in murine T cell

development. Growth hormone exerts thymopoietic effects in vivo. J Immunol. 1992 Dec

15;149(12):3851-7

13. Kappel M, Hansen MB, Diamant M, Jorgensen JO, Gyhrs A, Pedersen BK. Effects of an acute

boius growth hormone infusion on the human immune system. Horm Metab Res. 1993

Nov;25(11):579-85)

14. Kudsk KA, Mowatt-Larssen C, Bukar J, Fabian T, Oellerich S, Dent DL, Brown R. Effect of

recombinant human insulin-like growth factor l and early total parenteral nutrition on immune

depression following severe head injury.Arch Surg. 1994 Jan;129(1):66-70

Sem votos